Velvet antler provides a more extensive collection of nutritional components than any other single source used to provide raw materials for dietary supplements. The biochemical matrix found in the live, growing velvet antler contains a complete range of beneficial growth factors, saturated fatty acid molecules, phospholipids, minerals, glycosaminoglycans, extracellular matrix components and the complete array of amino acids.
Velvet antler supplementation may improve:
- Hormonal Balance
- Recovery time from injury or training
- Muscle mass, strength, and body composition
- Immune funtion
- Mental alertness, cognition, mood, and memory
- Sleep quality
Research supporting these benefits can be found at the end of this article!
Velvet Antler Constituent Summary
Velvet antler is not synthetically derived IGF-1. The active ingredients found in velvet antler include growth factors, minerals, trace mineral elements, proteins, collagen, lipids, and glycosaminoglycans.
· Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)
· Epidermal growth factor (EGF)
· Erythropoietin (EPO)
· Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)
· Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9)
· Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I
· Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II
Amino Acids (Essential & Non-Essential)
· Nerve growth factor (NGF) and other neurotrophins
· Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
· Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-Z)
· Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-[)
· Vascular endothelial growth factor
Free Form Amino Acids
Amino acid decarboxylase
Phospholipids & Sphingolipids
Velvet Antler Research
Velvet antler contains high concentrations of growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-f3 (TGF-f3), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) that are crucial for restoring damaged tissues. Numerous studies have demonstrated the enhanced wound healing effects that velvet antler has on tissue injuries. Research has shown significantly increased expression of growth factors in skin treated with velvet antler versus the controls. Additionally, researchers found faster wound healing, thicker skin, stimulated hair growth, and enhanced fibroblast activity with the use of velvet antler.
Refer to references 1-5.
Skeletal system repair
Glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulphate and glucosamine chondroitin, which have been established as natural remedies to reduce pain, stop joint space narrowing, and even alter the pathology of osteoarthritis, can be found in great abundance in velvet antler. Studies have demonstrated the effects that velvet antler has on arthritic joints and other skeletal system disorders. Velvet antler supplementation has been shown to reduce or eliminate joint swelling and distortion, inhibit the development of arthritis, significantly increase fracture healing rates, increase bone mineral density, and even increase bone width and osteoblast cells.
Refer to references 6-11.
Recent research has demonstrated the ability of velvet antler to inhibit microbial and fungal growth by enhancing immunological function and suppressing inflammatory cytokines. Macrophage and splenocyte activity have been shown to improve with velvet antler supplementation.
Refer to references 12-15.
Performance enhancing effects
Explosiveness, muscle recovery time, endurance capacity, strength and body composition can all be improved with the use of velvet antler. Velvet antler supplementation has been shown to reduce body fat and resting creatine kinase levels and increase strength, time to exhaustion, anaerobic performance, and VO2 max.
Refer to references 16-17.
RNA synthesizing capabilities
For the past 25 years, Chinese scientists have been demonstrating that velvet antler can exert anti-aging actions by promoting the synthesis of protein and RNA. Supplementing with velvet antler has been shown to increase the weight of the liver, brain, and testis as well as enhancing the activity of RNA polymerase and protein synthesis in the liver and kidneys.
Refer to references 18-22.
With Alzheimer’s disease becoming so widespread, products that have the ability to inhibit the decline of cognitive function are of great interest. A recent study was conducted using velvet antler on memory-impaired mice. Results demonstrated that velvet antler might have the ability to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes, ameliorate memory deficits, and improve long term memory.
Refer to reference 23.
Stem cell findings
The annual regeneration of antlers is a phenomenon that has fascinated scientists for ages. Although the mechanism is not yet thoroughly understood, velvet antler polypeptides have been demonstrated to promote differentiation of neural, osteogenic, and adipogenic cell lines in vitro. These findings have led researchers to believe in the probability of using stem cells derived from velvet antler in regenerative medicine.
Refer to references 24-29.
Research has shown a multitude of benefits natural IGF-1 can have on the body. Benefits include: building muscle mass, improving metabolism, nerve regeneration, immune responses, blood sugar utilization, slowing the aging process and expanding longevity. Studies have consistently concluded the remarkable effects of natural IGF-1 for chronic conditions such as heart disease, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis and obesity.
Some of the characteristics of IGF-1 deficiency include:
- Decreased hair and nail growth
- Decreased HDL cholesterol
- Elevated LDL
- Emotional instability
- Increased abdominal and visceral fat
- Increased body fat percentage
- Insulin resistance, which can lead to type II diabetes
- Lack of connective tissue
- Poor memory
- Reduced exercise performance
- Reduced heart output and sweating
- Reduced sex drive and functions
- Reduced skeletal muscle
strength and size
- Reduced thyroid function
- Thin skin
Building muscle mass
There is tremendous amount of focus in the training of athletes today to get bigger, stronger and faster by any and all means possible. Unfortunately, this often involves the use of synthetic anabolic agents that have devastating long-term ramifications on the human body. Human growth hormone injections, steroids and other harmful agents have destructive effects on muscle tissues, the endocrine system, exocrine system and even DNA.
Natural IGF-1 is a safe alternative to building muscle mass and is more effective than growth hormone supplementation itself. In fact, the majority of increases in strength and muscle as well as the anti-aging effects of growth hormone are due to its ability to raise IGF-1 levels in the body. IGF-1 also acts as an anti catabolic and plays a role in preventing muscle atrophy, increasing muscle growth and increasing protein synthesis.
Refer to references 30-33.
Improving muscle building
- Increases proliferation and growth of muscle cells
without a corresponding rise in fat tissue
- Increases uptake of amino acids into muscle cells, helping to regenerate muscle tissue after exercise and assure that muscle protein synthesis takes place
- Increases uptake of glucose into muscle cells
- Improves utilization of fat for energy
- Decreases utilization of carbohydrates
- Reduces catabolism (muscle break down) after training and workouts
Increasing human metabolism
- Improves white blood cell production
- Restores the immune-promoting lymphoid tissue
- Stimulates the proliferation of both B and T lymphocytes that help to kill viruses
- Increases the uptake and degradation of dangerous LDL cholesterol by macrophages
- Improves nitrogen retention (muscle preservation) and increase sodium excretion
- Improves parathyroid function vitamin D interaction to produce a dense bone matrix
- Reduces the urinary hydroxyproline excretion
One of the major issues with losing weight and restricting calorie intake is the accompanying loss in muscle mass. Muscle mass has been directly proven to stimulate metabolism and fat loss. Studies have shown that individuals receiving human growth hormone experience a significant lipolysis effect. Growth hormone increases the fat burning mechanism intrinsic to IGF-1; therefore, preserving and increasing lean body mass. IGF-1 also reduces cortisol levels and improves and regulates hormonal levels, which can be affected by calorie-restricted diets.
Improving the preservation of muscle mass when fat loss is experienced also benefits the health of an individual during weight loss procedures. Studies have shown that the pituitary gland contains the same amount of growth hormone through an individual’s lifetime. With age, however, the ability to release that growth hormone is blocked in the feedback loop between IGF-1 in the liver and the hypothalamus in the brain. Instead of reduced levels of IGF-1 signaling to the brain to direct the pituitary gland to make more growth hormone, this feedback loop is broken down with age. This is why supplementing with IGF-1 is not associated with a negative feedback loop.
Refer to references 34-35.
Slowing the aging process
Growth hormone is the primary hormone of the endocrine system. As it pulsates out from the pituitary gland, it is quickly converted by the liver into IGF-1, the metabolite form of the hormone that is ready to be used by the body. Growth hormone and IGF-1 levels decrease significantly as humans get older, especially after the age of 40. The decline in growth hormone is directly associated with certain aging signs like wrinkling skin, graying hair, decreased energy, decreased sexual function, increased body fat, heart disease, and weak and brittle bones. All of these symptoms of aging can be slowed down and even reversed with administering natural IGF-1 to counteract the biological aging process.
In addition, research has shown that IGF-1 reverses the shrinking of the thymus, which is one of the most important immune modulation organs in the body. This research shows exciting benefits of IGF-1 for those looking to halt and reverse the aging process.
Refer to references 36-38.
IGF-1 has the potential to increase lifespan. The blueprint of life that determines age is DNA. The Department of Clinical Research at the Longevity Institute International has studied how natural sources of IGF-1 may soon be able to turn old cells into new ones. IGF-1 can help produce new healthy cells and keep them in a healthy state for as long as possible. The cells ability to function relies on the genetic material of DNA. This resides in the nucleus of the cell that codes for all proteins, hormones and enzymes that make the cell run. Oxygen radicals and other factors such as UV light are constantly damaging DNA. DNA has the ability to repair itself but this ability is dramatically reduced within the aging process. Certain antioxidants can reduce the damage to DNA, but none have been shown to be as effective as IGF-1.
European researchers have shown that IGF-1 is capable of doing what other antioxidants cannot; IGF-1 initiates the transportation of nucleic acids into the nucleus of the cell where DNA resides. It provides the raw materials necessary to repair damage to DNA and initiate cell division, helping to slow the aging process.
Refer to references 39-40.
Improving blood sugar utilization
Synthetic human growth hormone injections can cause insulin resistance and further complicate the conditions of type II diabetics. On the other hand, natural IGF-1 actually has similar properties to insulin and helps improve the blood sugar profiles in these individuals. Studies were conducted by researchers at the Nemours Children’s Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, on three groups of individuals with insulin resistance. They concluded that patients treated with IGF-1 had less muscle loss, improved outcomes from surgery and normalized blood sugar levels, even when administered with conflicting pharmaceuticals that are known to cause insulin resistance.
Refer to reference 41-42.
Peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating nervous system complication experienced by both type I and type II diabetics. IGF-1 expression in tissue is impaired by diabetic conditions leading to sensory and motor neuron damage. Studies have shown that restoring serum IGF-1 levels can improve motor neuron function and prevent nerve demyelization. These findings have shown that the restoration of IGF-1 levels may be an effective treatment for diabetic neuropathy.
Refer to references 43-44.
Improving heart functions
IGF-1 has been shown to improve the cardiac functions of patients with congestive heart failure. In a randomized double-blind study conducted at the University Hospital of Zurich, the administration of IGF-1 to patients was associated with a 27% rise in the cardiac index and a 21% boost in the stroke volume index. The heart improved in strength and pumped more blood. This was also accompanied by a reduction in systemic vascular resistance, a 25% decline in pulmonary artery pressure and a 33% decrease in the right arterial pressure, while the placebo group experienced no such improvements.
Refer to references 45-46.
Repairing nerve damage
IGF-1 has been shown to repair and reconnect severed nerve endings up to a distance of six millimeters. According to scientists at the Institute of Neurobiology at the University of Gothenburg, IGF-1 by itself or in combination with other growth factors can stimulate nerve regeneration. IGF-1 has been shown to have a remarkable growth effect on spinal cord motor neurons by increasing neural activity in the spinal culture by 150-270%. It has also been shown to significantly decrease the preprogrammed cell death in embryos and has shown a tenfold increase on the intramuscular nerve sprouting in laboratory mice.
Researchers at the University of Michigan have also demonstrated that IGF-1 can stimulate the protective covering around the nerves, the myelin sheath. In debilitating diseases like multiple sclerosis and ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease), damage around the myelin sheath prevents signals between the brain and the nerves from being transmitted. IGF-1 and other growth factors have been shown to re-grow this protective sheath. IGF-1 was the most effective of the growth factors in inducing the growth of the myelin sheath and neuron cell and also helps the nerves remain normal and re-grow even when diabetic conditions were present.
The results of these studies are tremendous for individuals with MS and ALS who experience a loss of cortical motor neurons and for victims of other diseases that affect the peripheral nerves.
Refer to references 47-48.
Individuals with fibromyalgia are growth hormone and IGF-1 deficient. They experience muscle weakness, a reduced exercise capacity and chronic fatigue syndrome. A recent study found that 40% of fibromyalgia patients had lower IGF-1 levels when compared to normally healthy adults in their age and gender group. The study then looked at fifty of these same individuals and found that over 82% of them lacked the ability to properly secrete growth hormone.
Research has shown that IGF-1, the metabolite of growth hormone, can improve muscular endurance, strength and immune response. Directly administering a natural IGF-1 substitute in lieu of this lack of proper growth hormone secretion could prove to be an ideal natural alternative for individuals suffering from fibromyalgia.
Refer to references 49-50.
Reducing prostate-specific antigens
In a study conducted at the Medical College of Wisconsin, IGF-1 levels were found to be unassociated with heightened prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. The findings, published in the International Journal of Anti-Aging Medicine, indicate that prostate cancer incidences rise as men increase in age, whereas the blood levels of IGF-1 significantly decrease over the same timeframe at a rate of about 14% per decade after the age of thirty. In fact, IGF-1 may reduce PSA readings that are greater than four. The study also found that in over 3,000 patients, no increase in prostate cancer or any other malignancy was found in long-term treatment.
In another study, Dr. Ronald Klatz, President of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine, found that there were no reported cases of cancer among 800 treated patients, demonstrating that increased IGF-1 levels may have a protective and stimulating effect on the immune system. Further studies have shown that alternative therapies in treating prostate cancer with direct supplementation of endocrine hormones have actually significantly reduced PSA levels above fifty down to normal ranges of zero to four. This is attributed to the natural production of killer immune cells that were able to destroy the cancer cells.
Refer to reference 51-52.
Improving immune system responses
There is an interesting relationship between IGF-1 and the immune system. The activity between all major immune cell types such as T-cells, B-cells, natural killer cells and macrophages is altered with increased IGF-1 levels. This is because increased IGF-1 levels are involved in the production of lymphocytes, and in turn, can actually produce more IGF-1. This provides an alternate source of IGF-1 production other than the liver and a baseline for cellular communication between the immune system and the neuro-endocrine system.
Refer to references 53-54.
Bone fracture, density and osteoporosis
Bone related complications and illness are one of the leading concerns of the aging population today. Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly reabsorbing and renewing itself by principal cells that mediate this process. The three main cells involved are osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes. IGF-1 plays a critical role in bone growth, bone mass and strength by stimulating the production and function of these cells. Studies have consistently shown that IGF-1 may have an implication in treating bone fractures and bone complications like osteoporosis.
Refer to references 55-57.
In spite of IGF-1 expression being increased in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, there may actually be less bioavailability of IGF-1 in the body’s tissues. This is linked to the increased expression of insulin-like growth factor – binding protein (IGFBP), especially IGFBP-3 & 5, which may limit the bioavailability and affect IGF-1 has as an anabolic, anti-inflammatory, and tissue regenerating mechanism. Furthermore there is some exciting research on IGF-1 suspended in topical carriers increasing cartilage and subchondral bone repair in osteoarthritis. On the other hand patients with chronic arthritic conditions have been shown to not only have a decreased expression of IGF-1, but also a decreased expression of other hormones like growth hormone and testosterone as well.
Refer to references 58-59.
Additional Growth Factor Research
Cosmetic and topical applications of growth factors
Photo damaged skin is the consequence of life long exposure to the sun. In fact, most changes in our aging skin are accelerated by the sun’s rays. These changes come in forms of wrinkles, dark spots, skin cancer, broken vessels, yellowing of skin tone, and leathery skin. Researches have noticed that photo damaged skin correlates with certain aspects of acute and chronic wound healing. Growth factors have demonstrated positive cosmetic and clinical outcomes of topical applications for photo damaged skin. Growth factors can initiate wound healing, promote new skin cell proliferation, increase collagen formation, stimulate formation of capillaries under the skin for oxygen delivery and participate in tissue rejuvenation on multiple levels of the skin. Growth factors may hold the key to reducing signs of skin aging and repairing photo damage.
Refer to references 60-63.
Tendon, ligament, bone and connective tissue healing
Growth factors (bone morphogenetic protein, transforming growth factor 13, fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial, platelet derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor) can enhance fracture-healing rates in bones, ligaments, tendons and open wounds. Many growth factors in velvet antler initiate the tissue rebuilding process, while reducing inflammation and stimulating collagen production. Additionally, growth factors are present in multiple stages of the healing process and play a role in shortening and improving the recovery from tissue laceration, ruptures, tears and inflammation.
Refer to references 64-68.
Nerve regenerating properties
Neurotropic factors isolated in velvet antler are polypeptides that support the growth,
differentiation and survival of neurons. These neuro-regenerative factors increase motor neuron activity and support catecholamine production that enhances neurotransmitters and nerve transmission. There is a belief that these growth factors could be used to treat mood disorders and even more severe complications of the peripheral nervous system like neurodegenerative diseases.
Refer to references 69-71.
- Gu LJ, Mo EK, Yang ZH, Fang ZM, Sun BS, Wang CY, et Effects of red deer antlers on cutaneous wound healing in full thickness rat models. Asian Austral J Anim Sci 21, 2:277-290, 2008.
- Guan SW, Duan LX, Li YY, Wang BX, Zhou QL. A novel polypeptide from Cervus Nippon Temminck proliferation of epidermal cells and NIH3T3 cell line. Acta Biochim Pol 53,2:395-397, 2006.
- Mikler JR, Theoret CL, Haigh JC. Effects of topical elk velvet antler on cutaneous wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Altern Complem Med 10, 5:835-840, 2004.
- Roh SS, Lee MH, Hwang YL, Song HH, Jin MH, Park SG, et al. Stimulation of the extracellular matrix production in dermal fibroblasts by velvet antler extract. Ann Dermatol 22, 2: 173-179, 2010.
- Yang ZH, Gu LJ, Zhang DL, Li Z, Li JJ, Lee MR, et al. Red deer antler extract accelerates hair growth by stimulating expression of insulin- like growth factor I in full thickness wound healing rat model. Asian Austral J Anim Sci 25, 5:708-716, 2012.
- Faucheux C, Nesbitt SA, Horton MA, Price JS. Cells in regenerating deer antler cartilage provide a microenvironment that supports osteoclast differentiation. J Exp Biol 204:443-455, 2001.
- Kim KW, Song KH, Lee JM, Kim KS, Kim SI, Moon SK, et al. Effects of TGFI31 and extracts from Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe on acute and chronic arthritis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 118:280-283,
- Kim YK, Kim KS, Chung KH, Kim JG, Kim KS, Lee YC, et al. Inhibitory effects of deer antler aqua-acupuncture, the pilose antler of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe, on type II collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Int Immunopharmacol 3:1001-1010,
- Dai TY, Wang CH, Chen KN, Huang IN, Hong WS, Wang SY, et al. The antiinfective effects of velvet antler of Formosan Sambar Deer ( Cervus unicolor swinhoei) on Staphylcoccus aureus-infected mice. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 9 pages, 2011.
- Yan F, Yang MQ, Yan F, Liu SH, Kong P, Li ZC. Effects of pilose antler oral liquid on immunological function in mice. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Occidentalis Sinica 200805.
- Kim KH, Lee EJ, Kim K, Han SY, Jhon GJ. Modification of concanavalin A-dependent proliferation by phosphatidylcholines isolated from deer antler, Cervus Nutrition 20, 4:394-401, 2004.
- Min J, Lee YJ, Kim YA, Park HS, Han SY, Jhon GJ, et al. Lysophospatidylcholine derived from deer antler extract suppresses hyphal transition in Candida albicans through MAP kinase pathway. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1531, 1-2:77-89, 2001.
- Broeder CE, Percival R, Quindry J, Panton L, Wills T, Browder KD, Earnest C, Almada A, Haines SR, and Suttie JM. The effects of New Zealand deer antler velvet supplementation on body composition, strength, and maximal aerobic and anaerobic performance. Advances in Antler Science and Product Technology 161-165, 2004.
- Zhang R, Zhao YH, Wang ZZ. Anti-fatigue effects of antler velvet water extract in mice. Science and Technology of Food Industry 2011-04.
- Chen XG, Song HP, Wang BX. Studies on the effect and mechanism of water extract of pilose antler (WEPA) stimulating the syntheses of protein and RNA in aged Pharmacology and Clinics of Chinese Materia Medica 1991-04.
- Wang BX, Chen XG, Zhang W. Influence of the active compounds isolated from pilose antler on synthesis of protein and RNA in mouse liver. Acta Pharm Sinic 25, 5:321-325, 1990.
- Meng HY, Qu XB, Li N, Yuan S, Lin Z. Effects of pilose antler and antler glue on osteoporosis of ovariectomized J Chin Medicinal Materials 32, 2:179- 182, 2009.
- Sunwoo HH, Sim LYM, Nakano T, Hudson RJ, Sim JS. Glycosaminoglycans from growing antlers of wapiti (Cervus elaphus). Can J Anim Sci 77, 4: 715-721, 1997.
- Zhou QL, Guo YJ, Wang LJ, Wang Y, Liu YQ, Wang Y, et Velvet antler polypeptides promoted proliferation of chondrocytes and osteoblast precursors and fracture healing. Acta Pharm Sinic 20, 3:279-282, 1999.
- Wang BX, Zhao XH, Qi SB, Kaneko S, Hattori M, Namba T, et al. Effects of repeated administration of deer antler extract on biochemical changes related to aging in senescence-accelerated mice. Chem Pharm Bull 36, 7:2587-2592, 1988.
- Wang BX, Zhao XH, Qi SB, Yang XW, Kaneko S, Hattori M, et al. Stimulating effect of deer antler extract on protein synthesis in senescence- accelerated mice in Vivo. Chem Pharm Bull 36, 7:2593-2598, 1988.
- Xu L, Chen XG. Effect of pilose antler oral liquid (PAOL) on synthesis of RNA and protein in young and old mice. Pharmacology and Clinics of Chinese Materia Medica 2003-03.
- Lee MR, Yun BS, Zhang DL, Liu L, Wang Z, Wang CL, et al. Effect of aqueous extract on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice and antioxidant activities. Food Sci Biotechnol 19, 3:655-661, 2010.
- Cegielski M, Calkosinski I, Dziegiel P, Gebarowki T, Podhorska-Okolow M, Skalik R, et al. Search for stem cells in the growing antler stag (Cervus Elaphus). Bull Vet Inst Pulway 50: 247-251, 2006.
- Cegielski M, Izykowska I, Dziewiszek W, Zatonski M, Bochnia M, Kalisiak O. Characteristic of antlerogenic stem cells and their potential application. Tissue Eng, 26 pages, 2010.
- Li C. Deer antler regeneration: A stem cell-based epimorphic process. Birth Defects Res 96, 1:51-62, 2012.
- Lu LJ, Chen L, Meng XT, Fan Y, Zhang ZX, Chen D. Biological effect of velvet antler polypeptides on neural stem cells from embryonic rat brain. Chinese Med J 118, 1:38-42, 2005.
- Doron R, Nevo Z, Fenichel I. The effect of quality elk velvet antlers on the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult bone European Orthopaedics and Traumatology 1, 3-4: 125-129, 2010.
- Rolf HJ, Kierdorf U, Kierdorf H, Schulz J, Seymour N, Schliephake H, et al. Localization and characterization of STRO-1+ cells in the deer pedicle and regenerating antler. PLoS ONE 3, 4: e2064, 2008.
- Clemmons DR. Role of IGF-I in skeletal muscle mass maintenance. Trends Endocrinol Metab 20, 7:349-356,
- Duan C, Ren H, Gao S. Insulin-like growth factors, IGF receptors and IGF-binding proteins: Roles in skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. Gen Comp Endocrinol 167, 344-351, 2010.
- Philippou A, Halapas A, Maridaki M, Koutsilieris M. Type I insulin-like growth factors receptor signaling in skeletal muscle regeneration and hypertrophy. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 7, 3:208-218, 2007.
- Schmidt S, von Haehling S, Doehner W, Palus S, Anker SD, Springer J. IGF-I treatment reduces weight loss and improves outcome in a rat model of cancer cachexia. J Cachexia, Sarcopenia, and Muscle 2, 2:105-109, 2011
El- Eshmawy MM, Hegazy A, El-Baiomy AA. Relationship between IGF-1 and Cortisol/ DHEA-S ratio in adult men with diabetic metabolic syndrome versus non-diabetic metabolic syndrome. J Endocrinol Metab 1, 4:188-195, 2011.
- Mauras N, Haymond MW. Are the metabolic effects of GH and IGF-I separable? Growth Horm IGF Res 15, 1:19-27, 2005.
- Dik MG, Plujim SMF, Jonker C, Deeg DJH, Lomecky MZ, Lips Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and cognitive decline in older persons. Neurobiol Aging 24, 573- 581, 2003.
- Kelley KW, Meier WA, Minshall C, Schacher DH, Liu O, Vanhoy R, et al. Insulin growth factor-I inhibits apoptosis in hematopoietic: Progenitor cells implications in thymic aging. Ann NY Acad Sci 840, 518- 524, 1998.
- Sonntag WE, Lynch CD, Cooney PT, Hutchins PM. Decreases in cerebral microvasculature with age are associated with the decline in growth hormone and insulin like growth factor Endocrinology 138, 8: 3515-3520, 1997.
- Kaplan RC, Fitzpatrick AL, Pollak MN, Gardner JP, Jenny NS, McGinn AP, et al. Insulin- like growth factor and leukocyte telomere length: The cardiovascular health study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 64A, 11:1103-1106, 2009.
- Barbieri M, Paolisso G, Kimura M, Gardner JP, Boccardi V, Papa M, et al. Higher circulating levels of IGF-1 are associated with longer leukocyte telomere length in health Mech Ageing Dev 130, 11-12:771-776, 2009.
- Mauras N, Beaufrere B. Recombinant human insulin like growth factor-I enhances whole body protein anabolism and significantly diminishes the protein catabolic effects of prednisone in humans without a diabetogenic effect. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80, 3:869-874, 1995.
- Hussain MA, Schmitz O, Mengel A, Keller A, Christiansen JS, Zapf J, et al. Insulin-like growth factor I stimulates lipid oxidation, reduces protein oxidation, and enhances insulin sensitivity in humans. J Clin Invest 92, 2249-2256, 1993.
- Chu Q, Moreland R, Yew NS, Foley J, Ziegler R, Scheule RK. Systemic insulin- like growth factor-1 reverses hypoalgesia and improves mobility in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, Molecular Therapy 16, 8:1400-1408,
- Jianbo L, Chengya W, Jiawei C, Xiaolu L, Zhenging F, Hongtai M. The role of IGF- 1 gene expression abnormality in pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Chin Med Sci J 17, 4:204-209, 2002.
- Donath MY, Sutsch G, Yan XW, Piva B, Bruner HP, Glatz, et al. Acute cardio vascular effects of Insulin-like growth factor in patients with chronic heart failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998 Sept; 83 (9):3177
- Yao DL, Liu X, Hudson LD, Webster H deF. Insulin-like growth factor 1 treatment reduces demyelination and up-regulates gene expression of myelin-related proteins in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci 92, 6190-6194, 1995.
- Bennett RM, Clark SC, Walczyk J. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of growth hormone in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Am J Med 104, 3: 227-231, 1998.
- Cuatrecasas G, Riudavets C, Guall MA, Nadal A. Growth hormone as concomitant treatment in severe fibromyalgia associated with low IGF-1 serum levels. A pilot study. BMC Musculoskel Dis 30, 8:119, 2007.
- Ismail HA, Pollak M, Behlouli H, Tanguay S, Begin LR, Aprikian AG. Serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and binding protein-3 do not correlate with Gleason score or quantity of prostate cancer in biopsy samples. BJU Int 92, 699-702, 2003.
- Chein E, Vogt DG, Terry C. Clinical experiences using a low dose, high frequency human growth hormone treatment regimen. J Adv Med 12, 3, 1999.
- Smith JT. Insulin-like growth factor-I regulation of immune function: A potential therapeutic target in autoimmune Pharmacol Rev 62, 2:199-236, 2010.
- van Bilsen K, Driessen GJ, de Paus RA, van de Vosse E, van Lom K, van Zelm MC, et al. Low level IGF-1 and common variable immune deficiency: an unusual Neth J Med 66, 9:368-72, 2008.
- Ahmed SF, Farquharson C. The effect of GH and IGF-1 on linear growth and skeletal development and modulation by SOCS proteins. J Endocrinol 206, 249-259, 2010.
- Wang J, Zhou J, Bondy CA. IGF-1 promotes longitudinal bone growth by insulin- like actions augmenting chondrocyte hypertrophy. Fed Am Soc Exp Biol J 13, 1985-1990, 1999.
- Yakar S, Rosen CJ, Beamer WG, Ackert-Bicknell CA, Wu Y, Liu JL, et al. Circulating levels of IGF-1 directly regulate bone growth and density. J Clin Invest 110, 6:771-781,
- Liu XW, Hu J, Man C, Zhang B, Ma YQ, Zhu SS. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suspended in hyaluronan improves cartilage and subchondral cancellous bone repair in osteoarthritis of temporomandibular joint. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 40: 184-190, 2011.
- Lopez-Meduina M, Martin AI, Castillero E, Villanua MA, Lopez- Calderon A. Systemic IGF-1 administration attenuates the inhibitory effect of chronic arthritis on gastrocnemius mass and decreases atrogin-1 and IGFBP-3. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299, 2:541-555, 2010.
- Brown GL, Nanney LB, Griffen J, Cramer AB, Yancey JM, Curtsinger LJ, et al. New Engl J Med, 321:76-79, 1989.
- Fitzpatrick RE. Endogenous growth factors as cosmeceuticals. Dermatol Surg, 31:827-831, 2005.
- Fitzpatrick RE, Rostan EF. Reversal of topical growth factors: a pilot study. J Cosmet Laser Ther 5, 1:25-34,
- Gold MH, Goldman MP, Biron J. Human growth factor and cytokine skin cream for facial skin rejuvenation as assessed by 3D in vivo optical skin imaging. J Drugs Dermatol 10, 6:1018-1023, 2007.
- Bennett NT, Shultz GS. Growth factors and wound healing: Biochemical properties of growth factors and their Am J Surg 165, 6:728-737, 1993.
- Hsu C, Chang J. Clinical applications of growth factors in flexor tendon wound healing. J Hand Surg 29, 4:551-563,
- James R, Kesturu G, Balian, G, Chhabra AB. Tendon: Biology, biomechanics, repair, growth factors, and evolving treatment options. J Hand Surg, 33A:102-112,
- Lieberman JR, Daluiski A, Einhorn TA. The role of growth factors in the repair of bone. Biology and Clinical Applications. J Bone Joint Surg 84A, 6:1032- 1044, 2002.
- Molly T, Wang Y, Murrell GAC. The roles of growth factors
in tendon and ligament healing. Sports Med 33, 5: 381394, 2003.
- Lu L, Wang K, Li L, Xuan Z, Gong X. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on peripheral nerve regeneration. Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery 22, 12:1458- 1461, 2008.
- Yuen EC, Howe CL, Li Y, Holtzman DM, Mobley WC. Nerve growth factor and the neurotrophic factor hypothesis. Brain Dev, 18:362-368, 1996.
- Yuen EC, Mobley WC. Therapeutic application of neurotrophic factors in disorders of motor neurons and peripheral nerves. Mol Med Today, Reviews, 278-286, 1995.